Viticulture and Enology
Vineyard and Grape Varieties
The vineyard serves as a repository to preserve Dr. Munson’s varieties and as a resource for the viticulture and enology program. Each fall, cuttings are collected and shipped to grape growers and breeders across the U.S. To request cuttings please send an e-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org. The deadline to order for a spring delivery is November 15.
Thomas Volney Munson Grape Varieties (TV Munson)
ALBANIA. 1896. (Ten Dollar Prize x Norton x Herbemont). Vine very vigorous but subject to Anthracnose in cold wet springs, and the fruit, when young, to Black Rot; foliage larger than Herbemont; of a little less lively green prolific. Clusters large to very large, shouldered; berry medium, translucent white; skin thin and tough; pulp very tender and juicy, sprightly, with Herbemont character, but sweeter; uses, late market, table and white wine. Late, ripening with Fern, will remain on until frost; the latest white grape in cultivation. Ten feet, long pruning. Specially adapted to West Texas. Perfect flower.
AMERBONTE. A cross between America and Herbemont. Vigorous and prolific; cluster very large; berry small to medium, dark red; skin thin, tough; flesh tender, juicy; tine quality; ripens with Herbemont.
AMERICA. 1885. (Seedling of Jaeger.) Growth very strong. Cluster conical, sufficiently compact; berries very persistent, medium size, globular, black with little bloom, and scatteringly dotted jet black with white speck in center of dots; skin thin and tender, but does not crack; pulp melting, juicy, easily freeing the slender seeds; when fully ripe, very rich in sugar, also rich in agreeable acid; possesses a very distinct peculiar flavor, much liked by some, not “foxy”, making a good combination market and wine grape. Juice intensely violet red. A very good port wine has been made from it without “fortifying”. Ripens at Denison, Texas, July 20th to August 1st, a little after Concord and always evenly. Very prolific with long arm pruning and when pollenized by other varieties, as it does not thoroughly pollenize itself. Beacon and Concord are good mates. Endures the severest drought with ease. Has passed through 27 degrees below zero without damage. Not attacked by mildew, rot or leaf-folder, and has given excellent results in California as a resistant graft stock for Vinifera varieties. Adapted South and North. Plant 12 to 14 feet apart. Perfect flower.
ARMALAGA. 1902 (Armlong x Malaga). Vine very robust, stocky, short jointed, but little attacked by mildew in wet seasons; leaves of medium size, prominent acute teeth, little pubescent on lower side; cluster large to very large, compact, handsome, shouldered; berry large, clear yellowish-white, skin thin, tough, does not crack; pulp melting, very juicy, sprightly, of best quality, richer than Malaga; very promising. Specially adapted for Gulf Coast, and the parts of Texas, Oklahoma, west of the 97th meridian, succeeding well at Denison, Texas. Has endured six degrees below zero without injury. Perfect flower.
ATOKA. 1893. (America x Delaware). Growth vigorous; cluster large, slightly conical to nearly cylindrical, often with short shoulder, fairly compact; berries persistent, small to medium, globular, dark purplish-red, with little bloom; skin thin and sufficiently tough, never cracks; pulp juicy, tender, very sprightly and agreeable with ripened, easily freeing the seeds; rich both in sugar and in acid; quality pure and fine, sells rapidly in the market, and gives satisfaction. Resists disease and climatic changes excellently. Adapted south and north. Plant 10 to 12 feet apart. Long arm pruning. Perfect flower.
BAILEY. 1886. (Big Berry x Triumph). Growth strong. Clusters large to very large, cylindrical or often branching, generally compact. Berries persistent, large, black, with little bloom; skin thin and tough, never cracking; pulp meaty, but not tough, juicy, sprightly, of pure good quality, considerably above Concord; seeds readily parting from pulp. Ripe about July 10 to 30. A valuable market grape, easily superseding Concord; especially in South-Central and Southwest Texas, where it has done remarkably well. Plant 10 to 12 feet apart; medium to long pruning. Perfect flower.
BEACON. 1886. (Big Berry x Concord). Growth medium in South Texas, becoming stronger in North Texas to very strong in Missouri. Very prolific, of large cylindrical clusters, often shouldered, moderately compact. Berries as large or larger than Concord, black, with rather heavy white bloom, hang to cluster about equally well with Concord, but not so well as Bailey, skin a little tougher than Concord, never cracks; pulp rather more tender than Concord, very juicy, sprightly and of very similar flavor to Concord; rather more agreeable; seeds readily leave the pulp. Ripe here July 15 to 25. The vines have continuously borne very heavily and endured the climatic hardships well in Texas, Missouri and Illinois, passing 27 degrees below zero at Palmyra, Missouri, in the grounds of Dr. Jaudon, and bore heavily the following season. Adapted South and North. Perfect flower.
BELL. 1883. (Elvira x Delaware). Vine vigorous, healthy, free from mildew and Leaf-folder, very handy, a good, sure producer; cluster medium, cylindrical, often with a shoulder, fairly compact; berry medium, round, greenish-yellow, rarely attacked with Black Rot; skin thin, sufficiently tough to prevent cracking under ordinary weather changes; pulp rather tender, juicy, very sweet and agreeably flavored; ripens just before Concord. We consider it a superior grape to the Green Mountain. Successful in Texas northward. Have received flattering testimonials of this grape. Perfect flower.
BEN HUR. Parentage a combination of Post Oak grape with Norton and Herbemont. Vine very vigorous, very prolific, free from rot and mildew; cluster large; berry little under medially black, persistent; pulp very tender, juicy, sprightly, sweet. We consider this one of the most valuable of American wine grapes. Those who like Le Noir grape will like this, as it has all the good qualities of Le Noir without its tendency to rot or mildew. Medium to long arm pruning, Ten feet apart. Ripens in August 5th to 15th, at Denison, Texas.
BRILLIANT. 1883. (Lindley x Delaware). Growth strong. Vine endures winters anywhere up to –15 degrees below zero. Endures Texas climate well. Clusters large, cylindrical, or somewhat conical, often shouldered, open to compact. Berries large, globular, light to dark red, translucent, with a thin bloom, very handsome when well ripened; skin thin, rather tender, but seldom cracks; pulp meaty, yet very tender, melting and delicious, usually preferred for table and eating fresh, to Delaware, with which it outsells 5 to 10 cents per eight-pound basket in the average fully twice as much. It ships about equally as well or better than Concord. Its foliage is less attacked by mildew than Delaware, and spraying with Bordeaux mixture will entirely prevent this. Endures heat and drought fairly well, much better than Concord. Making a fine record in Georgia, as well as in Texas. Adapted South and North. Fine reports of it from New York. Eight feet, short arm pruning. Well adapted to limy as well as sandy soils. Perfect flower.
CAPTAIN. 1896. Parentage — America crossed with R. W. Munson. Cluster very large; cylindrical, reaching ten to twelve inches, berry large, black with white bloom; skin thin; ships well; pulp lender, freeing seeds easily, quality much better than Concord. Exceedingly vigorous and prolific. Uses, market, table, red wine; medium season. 10 to 12 feet, medium pruning. Although the flowers of this variety appear perfect, yet they are not as sufficiently self-fertile so that, in some years, the clusters fail to set full, hence some proper pollinator such as Beacon, R. W. Munson, Mericadel, Valhallah, Xenia, Hildalgo, or Concord, should be planted near it. Perfect flower.
CAPTIVATOR. 1902. (Herbert x Meladel). (The Meladel is a seedling of Delago crossed with Brilliant, a large fine red variety). Vine of good, vigorous growth, similar to Brilliant, but of a more lively green and less attacked by mildew, short jointed. Cluster large, cylindrical, sometimes shouldered, properly compact; berries persistent, large to very large, globular, clear lively translucent red; skin thin, tough, pulp tender, melting, sweet and of the most delicious quality; seeds few, ripens just before Delaware. Probably no more attractive grape has ever been produced in the United States. Perfect flower.
CARMAN. 1883. (Premier x Triumph). Growth vigorous; foliage never attacked by Leaf-folder or mildew; very prolific. Cluster large to very large, have reached two pounds in rare instances, shouldered or blanched, conical, very compact. Berries persistent, medium, globular, black with thin bloom; skin thin and tough, never cracking; pulp meaty, firm, yet tender when fully ripe, of pure, rich quality, much superior to Concord; seeds easily leaving the pulp. Vines now 20 years old, have borne 17 heavy crops. Has always been one of the most profitable varieties with us greatly praised in many sections of the South as far North as 40 degrees latitude. Ripe one to three weeks after Concord is gone. Will hang on the vines many days after becoming ripe without deteriorating. Plant 10 to 12 feet apart. Medium pruning. Perfect flower.
CHAMPANEL. 1893. (V. Champini x Worden). Growth rampant, exceedingly resistant to heat and drought, growing well in limy, black soils. Clusters large, conical, with long peduncle, rather open. Berries globular, large black, with white bloom, persistent; skin thin, pulp tender, juicy, very sprightly, acid unless well ripened, then quite agreeable; seeds rather large, easily leaving the pulp. Ripe about with Concord, which resembles very much in cluster and berry. Does well in any soil, valuable for black waxy lands of the South, where few other varieties will grow. Ripens evenly and not given to cracking or dropping as is the Concord or Worden in the South. 10 to 12 feet. Long arm pruning. Perfect flower.
CLOETA. Parentage, America crossed with R.W. Munson. Cluster large, berry large, black, handsome; skin thin, handles well; pulp tender, juicy, sprightly, far better quality than Concord. Vine very vigorous and prolific. Uses: market, table, red wine. Medium late, just after Concord. Ten to fourteen feet, long pruning. Ripens July 10th to 15th at Denison, Texas. Probably the best of all American black grapes.
DELAGO. 1884. (Delaware x Goethe). Vine same habit as Delaware, a little more vigorous, with leaves a little larger, and slightly more downy on lower side; clusters small to medium, long peduncle, fairly compact, shouldered; berries large ovoid, bronzy red, skin tough, but not very thick, pulp fairly tender, very sweet, highly flavored, Muscat like, of best quality; seeds few, rather large, ripe soon after Delaware. Vine requires pollenizing and spraying. Imperfect flower.
DELICATESSAN. 1902. (R. W. Munson x Delicious). (Delicious is a Big Berry Post-Oak x Herbemont hybrid). Vine vigorous, healthy, leaves three to five lobed, dark green; prolific, stocky; cluster above medium, conical, shouldered, long peduncle, fairly compact; berry round, black, above medium, persistent; skin thin, does not crack, flesh tender, juicy, sprightly, with distinct very agreeable, delicate flavor, juice clear red; a very promising hardy market table and wine grape. Perfect flower.
DELICIOUS. 1887. Big berry crossed with Herbemont. Vigorous, productive, healthy; stamens upright; bunch, medium, moderately compact; berry medium, round, black with blue bloom; sprightly, sweet; skin thin, rough; ripens a little after Concord.
DOG RIDGE. A variety of Vitis Champini found by Munson in Bell County, Texas. Pistillate, short reflexed stamens; ripens mid-season; cluster small; berry medium; black. The Champini is a noble graft-stock for dry, very limy and ‘adobe’ soils, while it does equally well in sandy soils. All varieties of it root readily from cuttings, and endure the climate of Massachusetts as well as Texas. The species promises much in hybrid combinations.
DR. COLLIER. 1885. (Ten Dollar Prize x Concord). Vine vigorous, large leaves, stocky, prolific. Cluster large, conical, not very compact; berries large, globular, clear handsome red, persistent, does not drop or crack, skin thin, flesh little pulpy, very juicy; should be thoroughly ripe, as otherwise rather acid, quality good; ripe about a week later than Concord. In Oklahoma, this grape is put at the head as a profitable market variety. Soil and climate there just suit it. Perfect flower.
EDNA. This is one of the handsomest grapes that we have. Large clusters of white berries. Of best quality. A hybrid of Armlong with Malaga. Has that flavor of the Muscat that is so good, but in this variety is superior owing to the peculiar combinations. It sets its fruits well through has recurred stamens. Ronalda, Ellen Scott, and Armalaga are good pollinators for it. Plant 16 feet apart. Imperfect flower.
ELLEN SCOTT. 1902. Armlong hybridizer with Herbemont. Vine beautiful, healthy, vigorous, prolific. Cluster large to very large, conical. Berry large. translucent, violet covered with a delicate bloom. Skin thin and tough. Pulp lender, very juicy and sprightly, of pure high quality, reminding one of the best foreign grapes. A very handsome table and market grape. Ripens after Catawba. This grape is especially valuable in West and Southwest Texas where the European varieties will grow, and we believe will become a valuable commercial variety for those regions. Plant 12 feet apart. Perfect flower.
ELVICAND. 1885. (Elvira x Mustang). This is the best of three accidental hybrids of Elvira with the native Mustang grape, illustrates how readily hybrids between cultivated and wild grapes occur. There is no mistaking that the variety shows Mustang much more than Elvira. A pure natural compromise of three very distinct species, — one from the far Northeast, Labrusca, one from the cold North, Vulpina, and one from the hot Southwest, Candicans; vine vigorous with rampant growth, leaves of medium size, leathery, dark green above, covered with dense white woolly felt on under side and on younger wood; cluster small, compact, shouldered, peduncle short; berry globular, clear translucent red, above medium size, very persistent, the pedicel extracting a small core, when berry is pulled off, as in Mustang pulp tender, juicy, of a very sprightly sweet, slight Mustang flavor. Vine bears heavily with long arm pruning. Colors at mid-season but should hang several weeks to reach its best quality. Birds do not bother it until quite ripe. Ellis variety has received very favorable notice in South Texas and in California, as making a peculiar, very agreeable light white wine. The fruit neither rots or cracks, and the foliage never mildews. Here is a base on which to build a distinct very successful class of high colored grapes for all the country south of Mason and Dixon’s line.
ERICSON. 1897. Seedling of America crossed with R. W. Munson. Cluster medium to large, compact and attractive. Berry medium, black. Skin thick and tough. Seeds small. Fine for table and wine.
EXTRA. 1886. (Big Berry x Triumph). Growth strong; cluster oblong to cylindrical, sometimes shouldered, moderately compact. Berries persistent, globular, medium to large, dark purple to black, with moderate bloom, skin thin, tough, never cracks; pulp tender, juicy, sprightly, agreeable, sweet; seeds easily passing from the pulp. William Pfeffer of Santa Clara County, California, a wine-maker of reputation, writes in the “Pacific Tree and Vine”: “The Post-Oak family of hybrids are most vigorous, good bearers, the best resistant, and make very fine wines, not to name a long list of standards, that can equal a wine of Neva or of Big Extra, and not light claret as refreshing as one of Elvicand.” Perfect flower.
FERN MUNSON. 1883. (Premier x Catawba). Growth very strong. Cluster medium to large with long peduncle. Berries globular, medium to large, very persistent; very dark purplish-red to nearly black; skin thin, tough; pulp firm, but not tough; very juicy, sprightly, with very agreeable Catawba flavor when fully ripe; seeds leave the pulp readily. Ripens very late in August or early in September, and hangs on until frost if desired, becoming excellent in quality and giving full satisfaction market. Very profitable, as it ripens when all old varieties are gone. Free from Black Rot. Has endured 27 degrees below zero in Missouri and has borne well the following season. It endures through excellently. Adapted for the South and North to latitude 40 degrees. 10 to 14 feet, long pruning.
GOLD COIN. 1885. (Norton x Martha). Growth medium. Cluster medium or above, ovate shouldered, proper degree compactness. Always sets a crop of well-filled clusters; peduncle medium to long. Berries large, globular, yellowish when fully ripe, persistent; skin thin, tough, never cracks, and rarely attacked by rot; pulp about same consistency as persons. Very handsome in the basket and markets excellently; has always been very profitable. Ripens with Catawba, endures all extremes of climate well. Favorable reports of it from all parts of south, and as far north as 40 degrees latitude. Eight to ten feet. Medium arms. Requires good soil cultivation and fertilization to maintain its vigor. Perfect flower.
HILDALGO. 1889. (Delago x Brilliant). Cluster large; berry large, ovate, yellowish-white. translucent, skin thin and tough; pulp tender and melting, quality best; uses, table, market, white wine. Early, handsome, delicious. Eight feet, short arm pruning. Perfect flower.
HOPKINS. 1888. Vine much more robust than Norton, perfectly healthy in leaf and fruit, very prolific, cluster and berry much like Norton, but larger; juice red. E.J. Ayers, of Villa Ride, 111., commends it highly as one of his most profitable market grapes, but I would term it a wine grape, rather for market. Perfect flower.
KRAUSE. 1893. Seedling of a hybrid of Herbemont with Niagara, produced by Prof. E. W. Krause, of Waco, Texas. Vine vigorous, slightly attacked by mildew in damp seasons, prolific, clusters large, shouldered; berries large, globular, pearly white, handsome, skin thin, tough, pulp tender, melting, of tine quality, little attacked by rot, a valuable market and table grape, for the South, North to Kansas and Kentucky. Perfect flower.
LADANO. 1902. (Salado x Headlight). Vine vigorous, healthy, foliage similar to that of Headlight; cluster medium, compact; berry medium or above, dark clear purplish-red, translucent, round, skin thin, tough, pulp tender, melting, rich, pure and sweet, seeds few, ripe early.
LAST ROSE. 1902. (Armlong x Jefferson). Vine robust, healthy, prolific, cluster very large, heavily shouldered, compact; berry large, rich rosy red, globular, persistent very showy and handsome; skin thin, tough; flesh tender, frost. Exceedingly promising for the South. It will require to have perfect flowered kinds near it blooming at same period. Imperfect flower.
LOMANTO. 1902. (Salado x Pense). Vine vigorous, prolific, healthy, not rot or mildew; leaf medium, having little pubescence; cluster above medium, conical, properly compact; berry very persistent, medium to large, spherical, black; skin thin, tough; pulp melting, excellent quality; juice claret red; sugar 6e degrees, acid 7 per mill, in very wet season; seeds small, few. Valuable for limy soils and hot climate. Perfect flower.
LONGFELLOW. Hybrid of Armlong with Griesa, the latter a very fine Italian grape. Vine fair grower, very prolific, healthy. Clusters extremely large, often 10 to 12 inches in length. Berry large, oval, persistent, black, of high quality. One of the most magnificent show and market grapes, adapted to all varieties of soil and for regions as far North as Missouri. Will compete with foreign grapes for market. Plant 8 feet with short arm pruning. Will require spraying in damp regions. Ripens in August 20th to 30th at Denison, Texas.
LUKFATA. 1893. (V. Champini x Moore Early). Growth strong. Endures heat, drought and cold remarkably well. Succeeds in black, limy soil. Not injured by mildew. Cluster medium, ovate, sometimes shouldered, compact; berries globular, large, persistent; does not crack; pulp about same as Moore Early, more juicy and very sweet agreeable. Ripens early and evenly. Sells in the market as well or better than Concord and strips far better. Little attacked by rot. A good market and a fair table grape. Flowers have reflexed stamens, hence it must be grown near some variety with erect stamens flowering at the same time, such as Ives; then it bears well. Plant 10 to 12 feet apart. Give long pruning. Imperfect flower.
MANITO. (America x Brilliant). Growth very similar to America, endures extremes of climate very well. Clusters long, cylindrical, rather open, with long peduncle; flowers apparently perfect, but does not bear well alone, very prolific; berries medium, globular, persistent dark purple, with white specks; very distinct and unique in appearance; skin thin and tough; pulp very tender, juicy, sweet and agreeable, parting from the seeds with ease. Ripens very early, about with Moore Early, packs beautifully and ships excellently. A very profitable market grape, also a good wine grape. Adapted for general North and South.
MANSON. 1897. Leaf is subject to mildew in wet seasons. An exceedingly sweet white grape. A hybrid of R. W. Munson with Gold Coin. Vigorous and productive; clusters medium, berry above medium, of yellow color; skin thin and tough; pulp tender, quality excellent; ripens late, with Triumph. Perfect flower.
MARGUERITE. 1886. (Secundo x Herbemont). Growth very strong, not attacked by mildew, endures Texas climate perfectly. Clusters medium, cylindrical, shouldered, with short peduncle, compact. Berries a good size larger than Herbemont, globular, dark purple, persistent; skin thin and tough, never cracks; pulp tender, juicy, sprightly, and about equal to Herbemont. Ripens some three weeks later than Herbemont, and hangs on through September and sells well in the market. It makes a fine wine. A shy bearer on short arm pruning, but on long arms it bears heavily. Succeeds everywhere in the South. A splendid arbor grape. 14 to 16 feet. Perfect flower.
MATHILDA. Seedling of Violet Chasselas, probably crossed with Brilliant. Large, handsome cluster above medium red berries. the berry is firm but very tender pulp. The quality of the very best. This has been noted every year since it began to bear and checked each time as a top-notcher.
MERICADEL. 1893, A hybrid of America with Delaware. Vine very vigorous and very productive; cluster large, berry medium, purple, translucent, very persistent to cluster, skin thin, and tough; pulp lender and meaty, of very best quality: fine for table and market. Ripens late, just after Concord. Doing finely in Florida and Southeastern part of the United States. Pronounced the best quality by many who have taken part in our “grape-testing parties.” Plant 8 feet apart, medium arms in pruning. Perfect flower.
MINNIE. A seedling of Edna, probably crossed with Longfellow. The cluster is large, conical and handsome. The berry is white, covered with a peculiar bloom that makes the fruit look as though it were frosted, which adds much to its attractiveness. The berry is large. The pulp is tender and the quality of the very best.
MRS. MUNSON. Neosho crossed with Herbemont. Vine thrifty, prolific and free from disease; cluster large, conical, shouldered; berry small to medium; purple; seeds one to three, small; skin thin and tough; pulp juicy and melting,; quality of the best. A fine eating grape as well as a valuable grape for wine. A fine variety for the South. Ripens two weeks later than Herbemont. Hermaphrodite. Flowering May 16- May 20.
MUENCH. 1886. A hybrid of Neosho and Herbemont. Vine very vigorous and free from all diseases; cluster large to very large; berries above medium, purplish-black; pulp very tender and meaty of fine quality. Sells readily in the market, also fine for table. Well adapted to the south. Ripens very late after Herbemont. Plant 10 feel, long arm pruning. Perfect flower.
NEVA MUNSON. 1886. (Neosho x Herbemont). Vine vigorous, healthy and productive. Cluster long and showy. Berry small to medium; color dark purple. A most excellent wine grape, as testified by expert wine growers. Ripens very late. Plant 12 feet, long arm. Perfect flower.
NITODAL. 1902. (Salado x Pense). Vine vigorous, healthy; leaf medium with little pubescence; cluster medium to large, conical, handsome; berry persistent, above medium, spherical, translucent, dark red, skin thin, never cracks; pulp melting pure, fine; juice pale pink, sugar 67, acid 6 per mill in very wet season; seeds small, few. Altogether very attractive and valuable, especially in limy soils in hot climate. Perfect flower.
OLITA. Delaware pollinated by Irving. Growth moderate, shoots smooth; foliage attacked by mildew not so much as Delaware; grows fairly well from cuttings, wood pale brown, and flattened; leaves medium, shallow, 3 lobed, pale green, somewhat downy on under surface; clusters small to medium, ovate, shouldered, short peduncle, open; berries medium, globular, persistent, pearly translucent white, skin thin, delicate, tough; pulp melting, of highest quality when well ripened; seeds one to three, medium. Strictly an amateur grape, exquisite for desert. Ripe a little later than Delaware, about equally prolific, but of light yield in weight.
PRESIDENT. A sister Hernito, every way quite similar, but berry not quite so large, about a week or ten days earlier, about with Moore Early and better. A seedling of Herbert; strong healthy, prolific; flower perfect; cluster medium compact; berry large, black, persistent, does not crack; quality better than Concord.
PRESLY. A seedling of Elvira crossed with Champion; name changed from President Lyon to Presly by Munson. Vigorous, hardy, produces good crops; tendrils continuous; flowers nearly fertile; stamens upright; fruit ripens the last of August; clusters medium, slender, cylindrical, frequently single shouldered loose; berries small, roundish, purple-red, heavy blue bloom, persistent; skin medium, tender adheres strong In pulp, flesh dull green juicy, tender, foxy, mild, sweet from skin to center; good quality.
ROMMEL. 1883. (Elvira x Triumph). Vine short-jointed, stocky vigorous, foliage clear green, having a little pubescence, leaves of medium size, large, sharp-toothed, reminding one of Vinifera more than Labrusca, subject to mildew late in summer, cluster good medium size, compact, often shouldered, peduncle short; berry globular, medium to large, persistent, greenish until fully ripe, then becomes a pale yellowish tint; skin very think and delicate, yet it rarely cracks; flesh sprightly melting jelly of most agreeable delicate flavor, liked by everyone. Too tender for shipping but fine for local market; ripe with Concord. Perfect flower.
RONALDO. Armlong-Malaga hybrid. Long, large clusters of white berries. As handsome as the Edna. The berries are round while slightly elongated in Edna. The Edna and Ronalda are full sisters. Plant 16 feel apart. Perfect flower.
RUBY. 1890. A seedling of Elvira crossed with Brighton. Vigorous, healthy, not very hardy; bunches imperfectly filled, small, shouldered; berry medium, round, dull red with stripes, resembling Elvira in flavor in texture; ripens about with Concord.
R. W. MUNSON. 1886. (Big Berry x Triumph). Growth strong, perfectly healthy; clusters medium to large, cylindrical, often shouldered, peduncle medium; berries, when well grown, medium to large, globular, persistent, black without bloom; skin never cracks; pulp tender, juicy and of very good quality, better than Concord or Beacon. Ripe just before Concord. Gives good satisfaction on market. Bears heavily on long pruning and when pollinated by other erect-stamen varieties flowering at the same time, - its own pollen not being fully adequate, although its flowers are apparently perfect. Concord and Brilliant good pollinators for it. Ships well. 10 to 12 feet apart. A. M. Bowman, of Salem, VA., after fruiting this variety, pronounces it the best American grape in vine and fruit. Perfect flower.
SALAMANDER. A combination of Salado, Delaware, and Lindley. Very vine vigorous and healthy, enduring drought perfectly and fifteen degrees below zero of cold. Prolific of medium, handsome, compact clusters of good, medium translucent red berries, haying thin, tough skin, melting pulp of quality about equaling Delaware; seeds small. A variety adapted to all soils and to a wide range of climate. Well worthy of extensive trial. Plant ten feet with medium to long arm pruning. Ripens July 20th to August 1st at Denison, Texas.
SAN JACINTO. Same in origin as La Salle; cluster a little larger, berry not quite so large, black, quality better, juice showing 76 sugar when Scuppernong showed 65. Ripens a week later than La Salle.
SANMONTA. 1898. From same lost as Sanalba, but better is small, some larger than I lerbemont, black, skin thin, flesh without pulp, very juicy, sprightly, reminding much of Herbemont in quality. The clusters have 20 to 30 berries, and the vine very prolific.
VALHALLAH. 1893. (Elvicand x Brilliant). Vine strong grower, foliage much more resembling Brilliant than Elvicand, and a little subject to mildew in wet seasons. Cluster small to medium, shouldered; berries large, dark, translucent red, globular, persistent, skin tough, pulp tender, juicy, of very good quality, — an improvement on Elvicand; has a trace of Mustang pulp flavor, but none of the twang of skin; ripe a little later than Concord and hangs sound a long time. Adapted to same range as Elvicand, and especially suitable for very limy soil. Plant 10 feet apart, give long arm pruning. Perfect flower.
VOLNEY. This is a seedling of Ellen Scott, apparently crossed with Muscat Rose. The color is about that of an Ellen Scott. The cluster very large and slightly oval. The flavor is much like that of Vinifera type and very delicious. A week later than Ellen Scott.
WAPANUKA. 1893. (Rommel x Brilliant). Growth medium to strong, equal with Concord, less attacked by mildew than Brilliant. Cluster medium to large, cylindrical, shouldered, properly compact; peduncle short to medium. Berries large, five-eights to seven-eights inch in diameter, globular, persistent, rich yellowish-white, translucent; skin very thin and delicate, yet seldom cracks, and handles better than Rommel. Ripe about with Delaware. Far superior to Niagara and Green Mountain. For nearby market and table grape there is no other variety superior, if equal, to it. Very prolific, requires short pruning. Succeeds well North and South. Reported as enduring drought in Western Texas among the best. Undoubtedly one of the best, if not the best, table and eating grapes produced in the United States. Takes the place of the Rommel, it being superior to it, although the Rommel is near the top for extra fine quality and flavor. Plant 8 Feet. Short arm pruning. Perfect flower.
WETUMKA. 1893. (Elvira x Herbermont x Gold Coin). Growth medium, healthy, withstands mildew and rot well. Clusters medium to large, ovate, sometimes shouldered; peduncle medium; berries large, globular, persistent, yellowish-green; skin never cracks; pulp juicy; tender, freeing the seeds easily; quality better than Niagara. Ripe late after Concord off. Bears heavily on short arms. A profitable market and table grape and will make an excellent white wine. Eight feet. Adapted for the South, and same range as Gold Coin, Texas to Missouri. Perfect flower.
WINE KING. 1898. (Winona x America). Winona was a pure seedling of Norton, of better quality than parent, produced in 1889, and accidentally destroyed. A vigorous, perfectly healthy vine every way, foliage very dark green, prolific, blooms a little earlier than Norton; flowers perfect; cluster long, cylindrical, rarely shouldered; long peduncle; berries a size larger than in Norton; persistent, round; skin thin, does not crack, pulp tender, juicy; juicy violet, sprightly, having a little trace of America flavor, very agreeable, rather small for market, a very fine red wine grape; seeds small; entirely resistant to Phylloxera, mildew and rot.
XLNTA. 1893. (America x R. W. Munson). Growth strong; clusters large, cylindrical, shouldered, with medium peduncle, fairly compact, unless not well pollenized, then loose; flowers have reflexed stamens and perfect flowering kinds should be planted near, such as Brilliant, Delaware, Concord. Berries medium to large, globular, persistent, black, with little bloom; skin thin, never cracks, pulp meaty, tender and of a very agreeable, sprightly quality. Imperfect flower.